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How to install and configure Git on Ubuntu 22.04 ?


Install and configure Git on Ubuntu 22.04

Objective

Git is one of the most famous Version Control System (VCS) in the world. Its wide adoption in the past years makes it an unavoidable tool in the development world.

In this tutorial you will learn how to install and configure Git on the Ubuntu 22.04 Linux distribution.

 

Requirements

This tutorial assume that you have an Ubuntu 22.04, running in an OVHcloud Compute Instance for example, and some basic knowledge of how to operate it. If you don’t have a running Ubuntu 22.04, follow the guide to use an OVHcloud Compute Instance.

 

Instructions

In this tutorial, you will first install Git, then configure it, and finally you will learn how to sign your commits.

At the time of writing this tutorial, the last LTS release of Git is 2.36.1.

 

Installation of the Git LTS

To install Git on Ubuntu, the easiest way is to use apt-get command.
To have the latest LTS version, you need to add a repository:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:git-core/ppa

Output should be like this:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:git-core/ppa

PPA publishes dbgsym, you may need to include 'main/debug' component
Repository: 'deb https://ppa.launchpadcontent.net/git-core/ppa/ubuntu/ jammy main'
Description:
The most current stable version of Git for Ubuntu.

For release candidates, go to https://launchpad.net/~git-core/+archive/candidate .
More info: https://launchpad.net/~git-core/+archive/ubuntu/ppa
Adding repository.
Press [ENTER] to continue or Ctrl-c to cancel.
Found existing deb entry in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/git-core-ubuntu-ppa-jammy.list
Adding deb entry to /etc/apt/sources.list.d/git-core-ubuntu-ppa-jammy.list
Found existing deb-src entry in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/git-core-ubuntu-ppa-jammy.list
Adding disabled deb-src entry to /etc/apt/sources.list.d/git-core-ubuntu-ppa-jammy.list
Adding key to /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/git-core-ubuntu-ppa.gpg with fingerprint E1DD270288B4E6030699E45FA1715D88E1DF1F24
Hit:1 http://nova.clouds.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jammy InRelease
Hit:2 http://nova.clouds.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jammy-updates InRelease                    
Get:3 http://nova.clouds.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jammy-backports InRelease [99.8 kB]                              
Ign:4 https://pkg.jenkins.io/debian-stable binary/ InRelease                                                                                                 
Hit:5 https://pkg.jenkins.io/debian-stable binary/ Release                                                                                     
Hit:6 https://ppa.launchpadcontent.net/git-core/ppa/ubuntu jammy InRelease       
Hit:7 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jammy-security InRelease                 
Fetched 99.8 kB in 1s (112 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done

Then install Git with the apt-get command:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get -y install git

Output should be like this:

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get -y install git

Hit:1 http://nova.clouds.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jammy InRelease
Hit:2 http://nova.clouds.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jammy-updates InRelease                                       
Hit:3 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jammy-security InRelease                                                 
Get:4 http://nova.clouds.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu jammy-backports InRelease [99.8 kB]                           
Hit:5 https://ppa.launchpadcontent.net/git-core/ppa/ubuntu jammy InRelease                                       
Ign:6 https://pkg.jenkins.io/debian-stable binary/ InRelease                                                     
Hit:7 https://pkg.jenkins.io/debian-stable binary/ Release
Fetched 99.8 kB in 1s (113 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree... Done
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
  git-man
Suggested packages:
  git-daemon-run | git-daemon-sysvinit git-doc git-email git-gui gitk gitweb git-cvs git-mediawiki git-svn
The following packages will be upgraded:
  git git-man
2 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 27 not upgraded.
Need to get 7700 kB of archives.
After this operation, 8810 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Get:1 https://ppa.launchpadcontent.net/git-core/ppa/ubuntu jammy/main amd64 git amd64 1:2.36.1-0ppa1~ubuntu22.04.1 [5768 kB]
Get:2 https://ppa.launchpadcontent.net/git-core/ppa/ubuntu jammy/main amd64 git-man all 1:2.36.1-0ppa1~ubuntu22.04.1 [1933 kB]
Fetched 7700 kB in 0s (22.9 MB/s)
(Reading database ... 131441 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../git_1%3a2.36.1-0ppa1~ubuntu22.04.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking git (1:2.36.1-0ppa1~ubuntu22.04.1) over (1:2.34.1-1ubuntu1.2) ...
Preparing to unpack .../git-man_1%3a2.36.1-0ppa1~ubuntu22.04.1_all.deb ...
Unpacking git-man (1:2.36.1-0ppa1~ubuntu22.04.1) over (1:2.34.1-1ubuntu1.2) ...
Setting up git-man (1:2.36.1-0ppa1~ubuntu22.04.1) ...
Setting up git (1:2.36.1-0ppa1~ubuntu22.04.1) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.10.2-1) ...
Scanning processes...                                                                                             
Scanning candidates...                                                                                            
Scanning linux images...                                                                                          

Restarting services...
 systemctl restart irqbalance.service jenkins.service packagekit.service polkit.service postgresql@14-main.service qemu-guest-agent.service ssh.service udisks2.service
Service restarts being deferred:
 systemctl restart ModemManager.service
 systemctl restart networkd-dispatcher.service
 systemctl restart systemd-logind.service
 systemctl restart unattended-upgrades.service

No containers need to be restarted.

No user sessions are running outdated binaries.

No VM guests are running outdated hypervisor (qemu) binaries on this host.

Next, you can test your fresh installation and display the version of Git:

git --version

Output should be like this:

$ git --version

git version 2.36.1

 

Basic configuration: name and email

Once Git is installed, it is advisable to configure some elements. In particular the identification part which will be “attached” during commits. In order not to have to do this configuration in each repository, it is possible to do it globally in a .gitconfig file at the root of the home user.

It’s possible to create this file manually or by using the config option of the git command:

git config --global user.name "Firstname Lastname" git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@mail.com"

Then, you can display your .gitconfig file in your home directory:

cat .gitconfig

Output should be like this:

$ cat .gitconfig
 
[user]
	name = Firstname Lastname
	email = firstname.lastname@mail.com

 

Advanced configuration: signed commits

It is strongly recommended that you sign your commits. The main reason for this, is to ensure that you are the owner of the commits and not someone pretending to be you. As you have seen before, the name and email are readable by everyone on remote repositories like GitHub or GitLab for example. Anyone can enter the same settings and claim to be you.

All commands will use the gpg utility, already installed on Ubuntu.

The first step is to generate the key:

gpg --generate-key

Output should be like this:

$ gpg --generate-key

gpg (GnuPG) 2.2.27; Copyright (C) 2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Note: Use "gpg --full-generate-key" for a full featured key generation dialog.

GnuPG needs to construct a user ID to identify your key.

Real name: Firstname Lastname
Email address: firstname.lastname@email.com
You selected this USER-ID:
    "Firstname Lastname <firstname.lastname@email.com>"

Change (N)ame, (E)mail, or (O)kay/(Q)uit? O
We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform
some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the
disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number
generator a better chance to gain enough entropy.
We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform
some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the
disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number
generator a better chance to gain enough entropy.
gpg: key BECE6D85FDA1B6C8 marked as ultimately trusted
gpg: directory '/home/ubuntu/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d' created
gpg: revocation certificate stored as '/home/ubuntu/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/18E345A3F27325A8B4816875BECE6D85FDA1B6C8.rev'
public and secret key created and signed.

pub   rsa3072 2022-06-17 [SC] 
      18E345A3F27325A8B4816875BECE6D85FDA1B6C8
uid                      Firstname Lastname <firstname.lastname@email.com>
sub   rsa3072 2022-06-17 [E] 

Then check the created key:

gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format=long

Output should be like this:

$ gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format=long

gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: marginals needed: 3  completes needed: 1  trust model: pgp
gpg: depth: 0  valid:   1  signed:   0  trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u
gpg: next trustdb check due at 2024-06-16
/home/ubuntu/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
-------------------------------
sec   rsa3072/ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP 2022-06-17 [SC] 
      SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
uid                 [ultimate] Firstname Lastname <firstname.lastname@email.com>
ssb   rsa3072/ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 2022-06-17 [E] 

Then, add the key to your Git configuration in the .gitconfig file in your home repository:

git config --global commit.gpgsign true git config --global gpg.program gpg git config --global user.signingkey ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP

Last step, extract and copy your key to your remote Git provider (GitLab, GitHub, ButBucket, …):

gpg --armor --export ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP

Output should be like this:

$ gpg --armor --export ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
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-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

That’s it, you have successfully installed and configured Git on Ubuntu 22.04.

 

Go further

Check the offers of public cloud instance on OVHcloud.